Spatiotemporal distribution and bivariate binary analysis of antenatal and delivery care utilizations in Ethiopia: EDHS 2000-2016

Background: Antenatal care (ANC) is a maternal health care service given by skilled health professionals to pregnant women. Women may give birth at home or in health institutions. Home delivery care (DC) increases the likelihood of mortality of the mother and the newborn. Globally, each year nearly 303,000 maternal deaths occurred from complications of pregnancy and childbirth. Ethiopia alone accounted for 13,000 deaths, which disproportionately affects women living in different places of the country. Thus, this study aimed to assess the spatiotemporal patterns and associated factors of antenatal and delivery care utilization in Ethiopia.

Method: This study used the 2000 to 2016 EDHS (Ethiopian and Demographic Health Survey) data as a source. A total weighted sample of 30,762 women (7966 in 2000, 7297 in 2005, 7908 in 2011, and 7591 in 2016) was used. The separate and bivariate logistic regression analyses with and without the spatial effect were modeled using SAS version 9.4 and ArcGIS version 10.8.

Results: The spatial distribution of ANC and DC was non-random in Ethiopia. The overall odds ratio of ANC and DC was 2.09. In 2016, 31.8% and 33.2% of women had ANC and DC respectively. The estimated odds of following ANC among mothers from middle and rich households were 1.346 and 1.679 times the estimated odds of following ANC among mothers from poor households respectively. Women who had attained higher education were 1.56 and 2.03 times more likely to have ANC and DC respectively compared to women who had no formal education.

Conclusions: Despite the government’s report that women now have better access to maternal health care, a sizable proportion of women continue to give birth at home without going to the advised antenatal care appointment. Women and husbands with low education, having non-working partners, religion, regions of dwelling, residing in rural, lower birth order, low birth interval, unable to access mass media, low wealth status, and earlier EDHS survey years were significant predictors that hinder antenatal and delivery care utilization simultaneously in Ethiopia. Whereas the spatial variable significantly affects antenatal care and being unable to access mobile phones lead to low utilization of delivery care. We recommend that policymakers, planners, and researchers consider these variables and the spatiotemporal distribution of ANC and DC to reduce maternal mortality in Ethiopia. Besides, it is recommended that further studies use the latest EDHS survey data.

Keywords: Antenatal care; Bivariate logistic; Delivery care; EDHS; Ethiopia; Spatial.


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