Serum lipid profile of stroke patients attending at Dessie comprehensive specialized hospital, Dessie, Northeast Ethiopia: A comparative cross-sectional study

Background: Stroke is a leading cause of adult disability and death worldwide. Serum lipid levels have established effects on short-term stroke mortality. To reduce the incidence of stroke and stroke-related mortality, it is important to assess lipid levels in subtypes of strokes. Hence, the main aim of this study was to assess lipid profile and associated factors among stroke patients.

Methods: A comparative cross-sectional study was conducted by recruiting 278 (139 stroke patients and 139 controls) study participants selected by convenient sampling technique from March to July 2021. Socio-demographic, behavioral, and clinical data were collected using a semi-structured questionnaire. Ethical approval was obtained from University of Gondar. After obtaining informed consent, about 5 ml of venous blood was collected to perform lipid profile using DIRUI CS-T240 automated clinical chemistry analyzer. Independent t-test, Mann-Whitney U test, Kruskal-Wallis H test, correlation tests, and logistic regression were used during data analysis. A p-value of <0.05 was considered statistically significant.

Results: The current study found that total cholesterol (170.24 ± 44.66) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (114.07 ± 35.82) were significantly higher in stroke patients than in the control group (155.22 ± 18.09) and (103.14 ± 15.65), respectively (P < 0.05). On the other hand, triglycerides (127 (104-141)) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (52 (48-57)) were significantly lower in stroke patients than in the control group (127 (104-141)) and (52 (48-57)), respectively (P < 0.05). Additionally, patients with ischemic stroke had significantly higher serum low-density lipoprotein than hemorrhagic stroke patients and controls (P < 0.05). Likewise, patients with hemorrhagic stroke had significantly lowered serum triglyceride levels than ischemic stroke patients and controls (P < 0.05). Dyslipidemia was found in 51.1% of stroke patients. Active smokers (AOR = 6.54, 95% CI = 1.56-27.33), being female (AOR = 3.64, 95% CI = 1.49-8.88), current alcohol drinkers (AOR = 3.51, 95% CI = 1.01-12.25), being diabetes patients (AOR = 3.65, 95% CI = 1.14-11.60) and high body max index (AOR = 4.07, 95% CI = 1.50-11.05) were significantly associated with dyslipidemia.

Conclusions: The overall dyslipidemia and lipid fraction abnormalities were higher in stroke patients. Efforts should be focused towards addressing these lipid abnormalities through lifestyle modification, health education and lipid reduction therapies in order to reduce their adverse effects.

Keywords: Cerebrovascular accident; Dyslipidemia; Ethiopia; Hyperlipidemia; Lipid profile; Stroke.


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